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DYNAMIC

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
&

COMPOSITION

4

Author
Krishna Prasad Regmi

Edited by
Balaram Sharma

TU Topper in English Education (M.ED)
M.Phil with scholarship award (UGC)

Shubharambha Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Kathmandu, Nepal

Published by:

Shubharambha Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Kathmandu, Nepal
URL: www.shubharambhapublication.com
E-mail: [emailprotected]

www.facebook.com/shubharambhapublication

Dynamic English Grammar and Composition Book - 4

Author : Krishna Prasad Regmi
Layout Design : Ram Malakar
Copyright © : Publisher
New Edition : 2077

© : Publisher

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted by means (electronic,
photocopying, recording or otherwise) without prior written permission from the
publisher. Any breach of this condition will entail legal action and prosecution.

Printed in Nepal

Preface

Dynamic English Grammar and Composition has been designed according to
the new English Curriculum prescribed by the Curriculum Development
Centre. The series comprises of ten textbooks from grade one to grade ten.
The present book is an amalgamation of survey of rules, structures and forms
presented in lucid modern English and illustrated with numerous examples.
The aim of this book is to bring about a change in teaching and learning
English grammar and composition-a change that will enable the learners
to use grammar in context using both inductive and deductive approaches
aiming to develop four language skills immensely. Practice in composition tasks
will help to develop the learner’s writing skills. It will encourage to writing their
own thoughts, ideas and feelings.
This new edition contains huge examples and their application to
communicative approach that will increase the quality learning of English
grammar. It is thought that this change will improve the standard and
acceptability of the book and I will consider the attempts fruitful if students find
the book fruitful.
I have left no stone unturned for the meaningful presentation of subject
matter to make it reader friendly. Detailed description of grammatical
structures and adequate exercises on them, plenty of guided and free
writing composition with enough practice questions, an adequate amount of
vocabulary related sections and as much as necessary self study materials
have been presented in the following chapters.
I am thankful to Shubharambha Publication Pvt. Ltd. for their encouragement,
co-operation and help in preparing this book.
At last, I would like to assure all the concerned teachers, students and
readers that constructive comments and suggestions shall be tremendously
appreciated and incorporated in the upcoming edition.

The Author

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. PARTS OF SPEECH.....................................................................................6-13
2. NOUNS.......................................................................................................14-35
3. PRONOUNS ...............................................................................................36-49
3. ARTICLES..................................................................................................50-62
4. ADJECTIVES..............................................................................................63-78
5. ADVERBS...................................................................................................79-87
6. SENTENCES............................................................................................88-100
7. YES/NO QUESTIONS............................................................................101-107
9. WH-QUESTIONS...................................................................................108-114
10. VERBS..................................................................................................115-132
11. TENSE...................................................................................................133-162
12. PREPOSITIONS...................................................................................163-173
13. CONJUNCTIONS.................................................................................174-183
14. STORY WRITING................................................................................184-189
15. PARAGRAPH WRITING.....................................................................190-192
16. ESSAY WRITING.................................................................................193-198
17. LETTER WRITING..............................................................................199-202
18. READING COMPREHENSION..........................................................203-213
19. SYNONYMS ........................................................................................214-215
20. ANTONYMS.........................................................................................216-217
21. IRREGULAR VERBS..........................................................................218-220

Phonetic Symbols

Consonant Sounds Vowel Sounds

Symbols Words Symbols Initial Medial Final Spelling

/k/ s king, pick, cat /i: / O{ eat meat see ee, ea, ie, eo, e, ei
/I/ O
/g/ u gate, ghost /e/ P it sit city i, u, o, e, y, a
/æ/ of
/ŋ/ ª sing, sink /a: / cf egg pen - e, ie, ea, ue
/ə/ c
/tƒ/ r chair, match /ʌ/ c act man - a

/dʒ/ h jug, judge /ʒ: / cM arm large car a, ear, ar
/ɒ/ cf]
/z/ h is, zoo, balls /ɔ: / cfM] ago perfect the a
/ʊ / p
/ʒ/ h genre, /u: / pm up but - o, u, ou, u, oe
pleasure,
Symbols
garage
/eI/ PO
/t/ 6 tree, mat earth bird sir ir, ur, er, ear
/aI / cfO{ on o, a, ow
/d/ 8 do, middle / ɔI/ cfO] { all hot - a, aw, au
/ Iə/ Oc -
/ø/ y thank, with /ʊə/ pc ball saw u, ou, o, oo
/eə/ Pc ooze o, oo, wo, ue, ou
/ð/ b those, breathe book -
Initial Spelling
/n/ g nose, man eight move two a, ay

/p/ k pot, map Diphthongs

Medial Final

/f/ km fan, potato, same say
laugh
/b/ a ice might sky uy, igh, ie, y, eye
/v/ e bag, bulb oil voice boy
/m/ d van, save ear real here oy, oi
/j/ o man, same - influence poor
/r/ / area chair rare ear, eer, ere
yak
red, carry out our, ocr, ure
old
/l/ n late, sell /aʊ / cfp loud cow air, ear, ere, eir,
home go are
/w/ j walk / əʊ/ cp
o, ow, ew

ou, ow

/ʃ/ z shoes, sugar,

wish, chef

/s/ ; sun, miss

/h/ x house, yahoo

GET PARTS OF SPEECH 1
STARTED
Chapter

Read the following sentences.

noun verb adverb prepositionnoun
The cat slept peacefully on the mat.
pronoun verb adjectiveadjectivenoun
She worealong green dress.
pronoun verb noun conjuctionnoun verbadjective
Heliked cake butthecupboardwasempty.

Do There are eight parts of speech in English language
you namely nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions,
Know? pronouns, verbs, and interjections.

Speaking Practice

Answer the following questions.
a. Who slept peacefully on the mat?
b. How did the cat sleep?
c. What did she wear?
d. How was the cupboard?
e. What is the word class of the word ‘cupboard’?
f. What is the word class of the word ‘slept’ and ‘on’?
g. What is the word class of the word ‘but’ and ‘she’?

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Quick Each word in the text has different function. A noun is a naming word.
Tip A pronoun is used instead of noun to avoid repetition of nouns. An
adjective qualifies or describes nouns and pronouns. A verb states an
action. All the words in English are divided into mainly eight types of
classes. They are called parts of speech.

Grammar Focus: Parts of Speech

Nouns Pronouns
Interjections

Parts of Adjectives

Conjunctions

Speech

Prepositions Adverbs
Verbs

Parts of Speech Function Examples
NOUN names a person, place, Mr. Sharma, boy, student, Chitwan,
a thing or idea classroom, street, cup, door, chair,
PRONOUN love, fear, bravery
replaces a noun or a I, you, he, she, we, it , they
pronoun
us, them, me, her, him

myself, himself, themselves

mine, ours, yours, who, whom

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 7

ADJECTIVE describes a noun or The red house is mine.
pronoun
The huge dog is there.
ADVERB describes adverbs,
adjectives and verbs The young man died yesterday.

VERB expresses an action, The tallest boy is in the ground.
a state of being or The boy sang very loudly.
linking
The pizza was too hot.
PREPOSITION relates a noun or
pronoun to another He arrived late.
word in a sentence, The dog is running.
location, time,
comparison The clock ticked.

CONJUNCTION joins words or groups The apple fell down.
of words in a sentence
I am happy today.
INTERJECTION interjects strong
feelings She was excited to visit new
places.
The dog sat under the table.

The mouse ran through the door.

Over the river you can see my
house.
Teachers and student work
together.

I would go, but I have work.

Saran or Binod can drive you.

I hope neither you nor I have to
stay longer.

Bikash either you study now or
later.
Oh, no! I can’t let you do that.

Oops! The door slammed.

Ouch! The cat scratched me.

Goodness! The snow is two feet
deep.

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Listening Practice

Reproduce these words your teacher.

Types Examples
Noun
dog, suitcase, flowers, bed, cat, movie, train, country, book,
Pronoun phone, match, speaker, clock, pen, woman, mountain, city, ocean,
country, building, dog, airline, house, ocean, bird, photograph,
banana, eyes, light, sun

she, he, it, they, I, we, you, me, us, you, her, him, it, them, my,
our, your, her, his, its, their, mine, ours, yours, hers, his, its, theirs,
myself, ourselves, yourself, herself, himself, itself, themselves

Adjective obedient, silly, friendly, brave, angry, smart, handsome, stupid,
Adverb foolish, empty, few, full, heavy, many, numerous, abundant,
happy, sad, old, young, adult, hard, soft, lonely, strong, dull,
Verb intelligent, easy, difficult, good, bad, honest
Preposition
Conjunction boastfully, boldly, bravely, briefly, brightly, briskly, broadly,
Interjection busily, calmly, carefully, carelessly, certainly, cheerfully, clearly,
cleverly, closely, commonly, continually, correctly, abnormally,
absentmindedly, accidentally, actually, adventurously, afterwards,
almost, always, annually, anxiously, arrogantly, awkwardly,
bashfully, beautifully, bitterly, bleakly, blindly, blissfully

gaze, started, prepared, climb, hurt, went, climbed, made, pulled,
let, eat, play, go, sing, dance, cry, copy, swell, smear, pollute,
complete, arrive, wrote, jumped, brought, is, are, was, were, has,
have, had, used to, could, would, must, do, does, did, can, may

at, between, behind, below, by, inside, corner, into, after, to,
about, in, on, since, while, under, over, through, behind, for,
beneath, against, beside, over, during, without, abroad, across,
among, against, around

because, since, unless, why, either…or.., neither..nor…, so, but,
so that, so...that…, despite, in spite of, as…as.., yet, as long as,
if, however, because of, whenever, nor, or, for, and, after, before,
than, until, although, how, though, when, as if, till, while

Oh!, Ouch!, Alas!, Hmm!, Ah!, Uh!, Er!

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 9

1ASSESS YOURSELF

Name the parts of speech of the following underlined words.
1. Bravo! We have won the match.
2. He went to China for business exhibition.
3. I have a beautiful tiffin box.
4. They always go for morning walk.
5.I really must do it today.
6. Nepal is an Asian country.
7. The students are writing a composition.
8. We congratulated her on passing test.
9. The dog is chewing a bone.
10. We have painted our house blue.
11.What has happened to you?
12. What a naughty boy you are!
13.He always goes office on foot.
14. My first class starts at 9:00 am.
15.Hush! Maintain silence here.

2ASSESS YOURSELF

Name the parts of speech of the following underlined words.
1. I can’t meet you today.
2. He saw the movie twice.
3.The brave soldier fought the enemy.

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

4. The little mouse ate the cracker crumbs. 11
5. My shoe lace has a knot.
6. Dad used a wrench to fix the leaking pipe.
7. I cracked the egg and saw two egg yolks.
8. I used a curls comb to get the tangles out of my hair.
9.A gentle soap should be used.
10. Cold water freezes in winter.
11. The dress should not be wrung or twisted.
12. Put the towel in direct sunlight.
13. Dry it in the shade.
14. The dress should be ironed at a low temperature.
15. His father bought him new shoes.

3ASSESS YOURSELF

Name the parts of speech of the following underlined words.
1.How beautiful they are!
2. Most people prefer the new system to the old.
3. I remember this place as a little fishing village.
4.They replaced the old phone with new ones.
5. Your action saved us from bankruptcy.
6. The proposal struck me as a good idea.
7. Did you thank Michelle for the lift?

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

8. I blame the government for our problems.
9. The school provided tea for the visitors.
10. There is another chair in that room
11. Please give us some dictation today.
12. Several different techniques may be applied.
13.The children got up at 6:30
14. He went to the doctor because he was ill.
15. Peter saw the film last week.

4ASSESS YOURSELF

Name the parts of speech of the following underlined words.
1. It had been raining hard that afternoon.
2. Bob had been sleeping since 8.30.
3. I prefer to stay at home and watch television.
4. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it.
5. Jane walked past me without speaking.
6.The jacket you bought is of very good quality.
7. We hope the weather to be hot tomorrow.
8.We expect him to leave for Europe next week.
9. If he had come, she would have spoken to him.
10. If the weather is lovely, they will go to the beach.
11. John sat between Mary and me.

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

12. He called me suddenly.
13. John told me to wait five minutes for him.
14.The teacher told me to sit outside.
15. Oh! What a lovely flower.

Vocabulary in Use

Tell whether each pair of words is synonyms or antonyms.

agree, disagree __________________________

cold, freezing __________________________

easy, difficult __________________________

argue, squabble __________________________

guess, estimate __________________________

bottom, top __________________________

tried, energetic __________________________

huge, gigantic __________________________

sink, float __________________________

windy, calm __________________________

listen, hear __________________________

laugh, cry __________________________

several, few __________________________

weak, strong __________________________

lovely, preety __________________________

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 13

GET NOUNS 2
STARTED
Chapter

Read the following text.

Mary is ten years old. She is from Dorset. Her hair is long and
brown. She has got brown eyes. She has got a cat and a dog. Their
names are Pat and Fluffy. Pat, the dog has got a small house in the
garden. Mary’s cat, Fluffy is 3 years old.

Mary’s mother is Jane. She is a teacher. She’s thirty-six years
old. Her husband is Nick. He is thirty-eight. He’s a bus driver.
He has got brown hair and blue eyes. Jane’s hair is blonde and her
eyes are brown. They have got three children namely Mary, Sean
and Peter. Sean is six and Peter is twelve years old. The children
are pupils. Sean’s hair is blonde, Peter’s hair is brown. The boys have got blue
eyes.

Jane hasn’t got a pet. She has a friend. Her name is Laura. Nick has got a horse.
Its name is Lightning. Nick’s friends are bus drivers. They are Tom, Charles
and John.

Peter’s pet is a hamster. Its name is Tiny. She is so small. Sean has got a goldfish.
Its name’s Goldie. Peter and Sean have got four friends. Peter’s friends are James
and Doug. Brian and Adam are Sean’s friends. Mary’s friends are Maggie and
George.

Do In the text given above, the coloured words are nouns. They
you are naming words. They are words denoting a person, place,
Know? animal, thing, group, quality or action.

Speaking Practice

Answer these questions based on the given text.
a. Who is the speaker?
b. Where is she from?

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

c. What are her cat and dog?

d. What is the name of her mother?

e. Who is a bus driver?

f. Who are Nick’s friends?

All naming words are nouns. Look at the following nouns from the above
given text.

Animals: cat, dog, Pat, Fluffy, pet, horse, Lightning, hamster, Tiny, goldfish,
Goldie

Persons: Mary, mother, Jane, teacher, husband, Nick, driver, Sean, Peter, children,
pupils, boys, friend, Laura, drivers, Tom, Charles, John, James, Doug,
Brian, Adam, Maggie, George

Things: hair, eyes, bus

Places: house, garden, Dorset

Listening Practice

Reproduce these words after your teacher.

People: father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother, sister, man, woman, nephew,
niece, Nima, Alan, Rita, Sabina, Kamala, Tom

Animals: bull, cow, dog, cat, frog, tiger, lion, buffalo, bull, bird, elephant, crow,
sparrow, ostrich, peacock, parrot
Places: village, city, field, jungle, river, Pokhara, China, America, Nepal,
Dhading, Kailali, kitchen, bathroom
Things: book, copy, pencil, pen, desk, chair, salt, oil, iron, pizza, bread, ice,
table

Grammar Focus: Types of Nouns

Mr. Adhikari is a doctor. He works in Patan Hospital.

It names person. It names profession. It names place. 15
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

He lives in Kathmandu with his wife and two sons.

It is the name of a city. These words name people.

He always has coffee without sugar in the morning.

These words name things.
His sons Pratik and Pramod like to have apples and bread.

These words are name of people. These words name things.

George is their pet dog. They play with them in the garden.

These words name animal. It names a place.

Instant Practice

Underline the nouns in the following sentences.
1. Krishna is hitting a dog with a stick.
2. I ate an apple and a glass of milk yesterday.
3. Kathmandu is a crowded city in Nepal.
4. My brother wants to be an engineer.
5. Rahul is an honest boy.
6. A dog is a pet animal.
7. He is wearing a red cap and black shoes.
8. The carpenter is cutting the log.
9. Hem is from Dhading.

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

10. His father grows vegetable in the garden.

11. Lila drinks beer and wine.

12. Netra bought three story and two comics’ books.

13. Mina likes English but she does not like Mathematics.

14. Look! Dinesh has brought a washing machine.

15. A cat’s baby is called a kitten.

16. She has two brothers and a sister.

17. Kitty is the name of Hiram’s cat.

18. Saturday is the last day of a week.

19. The children are playing in the street.

20. The plane landed heavily on the grassland.

Now, put the nouns in the following columns.

People Place Things Animals

Grammar Focus: Proper and Common Nouns

Read the following sentences.
People

Kaman is a doctor. Rita is an engineer. Ronaldo is a football
player.

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 17

Places

Pokhara is a clean Nepal is an Asian country. Gangajamuna is a falls.
city.

Things

The Geeta is a Cello is a type of pen. Yamaha is a type of bike.
holy book.

Animals

Sathi is my Goldie is my pet goldfish. Tom is our family cat.
favourite horse.

Quick The words like doctor, engineer, player, city, country, falls, book,
Tip pen, bike, horse, goldfish and cat are common nouns of people,
places, things and animals respectively. They are not specific nouns.
They begin with capital letter only if they are used as the subject
in a sentence. The words like Kaman, Rita, Ronaldo, Pokhara,
Nepal, Gangajamuna, Geeta, Cello, Yamaha, Sathi, Goldie and
Tom are proper nouns of specific people, places, things and animals
respectively. They are always written in capital letter.

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

More Common and Proper Nouns

Common Noun Proper Noun

animals and birds dog, cat, horse, cow, ox, George, Tony, Rani, Gajuwa,
days
languages buffalo, tiger, parrot Kali, Apsara
months
newspapers day Sunday, Monday, Tuesday,
people
Wednesday
places
language English, Chinese, Dutch,
Instant Practice
Hebrew, Japanese

month January, February, March, April,

June

newspaper The Himalayan Times, The

Kathmandu Post

man, woman, teacher, Kamal, Kamana, Mr. Rai, Mr.

doctor, boy, girl, actor, Regmi, Dr. Sharma, Hem,

actress Diya, Rajesh Hamal, Karisma

Manandhar

city, village, district, Kathmandu, Barpak, Gorkha,

river Budhigandaki

State whether the following underlined nouns are proper or common.

1.The policemen interrogated the old man.

2. Chinar is the name of a tree that is found in Kashmir.

3. Lux is a kind of soap.

4. Sunshine is a type of shampoo.

5. December is the last month in a year.

6. Lumbini is the birthplace of Gautama Buddha.

7. New Delhi is the capital city of India.

8. Monday is the second day of my new job.

9. William Shakespeare is a writer.

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 19

10. Upendra Devkota is a renowned doctor.
11. Cancer is a disease.
12. Mr. Denish is a famous teacher.

Instant Practice

Write down the common nouns for the following proper nouns.
1. Mohan, Mihang, Bishop _________________
2.Bina, Nita, Rita _________________
3. Kathmandu, Pokhara, Biratnagar _________________
4. Thursday, Friday, Saturday _________________
5. Salyan, Pyuthan, Gorkha _________________
6.May, June, July _________________
7.Canada, India, China _________________
8.Dashain, Tihar, Chhath _________________
9.Football, Tennis, Chess _________________
10. Narayani, Koshi, Gandaki _________________
11.Shine, Pulsar, Apache _________________
12.Samsung, Nokia, Itel _________________

Instant Practice

Write down the common nouns for the following proper nouns.
1.Mathematics _________________
2.Asia _________________
3.Beer _________________
4.Rajesh Hamal _________________
5. Laxmi Prasad Devkota _________________

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

6.Parijat _________________

7.Prachanda _________________

8.Madan Krishna _________________

9.Govinda K.C _________________

10.Nepali _________________

11.The Himalayan Times _________________

12.Motu Patlu _________________

Instant Practice

Match the following nouns.

1. Harry Porter cartoon

2. Tom and Jerry pen

3.Starline milk

4.DDC book

5.Narayanhiti temple

6.Swoyambhunath palace

7.China continent

8.Africa country

Grammar Focus: Using Capital Letter

Study the following sentences.
My name is Evan.
I was born in March.
I live in Kathmandu.
Mohan and Manish are my friends.
Today it is Saturday.
My best actor is Anmol K. C.

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 21

Quick Proper nouns are always written in capital letters.
Tip

Instant Practice

Correct the following sentences using capital letters.

1. hetauda is a beautiful city. _______________________________

2. krishala and krishal are twins. _______________________________

3. harish is from baitadi. _______________________________

4. miss rai is our english teacher. ________________________________

5. the eiffel tower is located in india. ________________________________

6. davies falls is located in pokhara. ________________________________

Instant Practice

Write a common noun for the following proper nouns.

Mina Mohan Ramayana Maruti Apple

Albert Einstein Bagmati Dharan Bagbazaar Gopi Krishna

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Grammar Focus: Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Read the following sentences.

I have five dolls. He drinks tea every day.

There are two chairs. I eat much rice.

He has three brothers. The puppy´s drinking milk.

I have three pencils. I drink coffee.

Can you count the Can you count tea,
dolls, chairs, rice, milk
and coffee?
brothers and pencils?

We can count them. We can not count them.
We can separate them. We can not separate them.
They have singular and plural forms. They have same singular and plural forms.
We can say how many. We cannot say how many.

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 23

Do The word pencils is countable noun whereas the word milk is
you an uncountable noun. Countable nouns are that we can count
Know? like pen, copy, eraser, marker, wall, ball, etc. Uncountable
nouns are that we cannot count like air, water, gas, hair, flour,
sand, butter, blood, etc.

Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable Nouns Examples

drink milk, water, coke, fanta, sprite, tea, coffee, juice, beer

gas oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, air, helium

grain paddy, wheat, rice, corn, barley, millet

powder crimson, cement, dust, sand, gunpowder, particle

solid gold, silver, iron, copper, wood, furniture

food bread, ghee, butter, salt, sugar, tea

Listening Practice

Repeat these words after your teacher.

Countable Nouns Apple Uncountable Nouns
Bun Sandwich Bread Fruit Juice

Burger Fries Egg Rice Cereal Jam

Salad Vegetables Cookies Milk Coffee Sugar

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Countable Nouns Uncountable Nouns
Flour Salt Soup
Tomato Carrot Hot dog

Candies Olives Peanuts Tea Cheese Pasta

Pancakes Watermelon Pea Honey Water Cottage
cheese

Grapes Cherries Oranges Butter Seafood Mustard

Instant Practice

Put the following nouns in the right columns.

book blood curd woman wine watch pot

ice ink metal petrol banana butter table
maize baby ice-cream urine paper food hen
sweat wood toothpaste gold aero planes glass house
dew gun powder oxygen crimson laptop phone
clay

Countable Nouns Uncountable Nouns

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 25

Grammar Focus: Singular and Plural Nouns

Read the following sentences.
This is a cell phone.
These are cell phones.
This is a monkey.

These are monkeys.

This is a mouse.
These are mice.
I have a pencil.
I have many pencils.

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Nouns can be singular or plural. When we are talking about just one

Quick thing or person, we use a singular noun. When we are talking about
Tip more than one thing or person, we use a plural noun. Words called
articles or determiners are used to signal nouns. For example: a palace,

a river, an easy chair, an idea, two books, three trees, some water, etc.

Formation of Plural Nouns
We add-es to nouns ending in-ch, -s, -sh, -ss, and-x.

Add Words Example
ending

-es ch beach-beaches inch- match- watch-
inches matches watches
s bus-buses
octopus- syllabus- virus-
sh dish- octopuses syllabuses viruses
dishes
brush- thrush- bush-
ss boss-bosses brushes thrushes bushes
dress- glass- kiss-
x six-sixes dresses glasses kisses

box-boxes fox-foxes tax-
taxes
-s/es -o dynamo- studio- photo-
-ies -y dynamos studios photos tattoo-
buffalo- potato- echo- tattoos
buffaloes potatoes echoes tomato-
tomatoes
hero- tornado- mosquito-
heroes tornadoes mosquitoes kimono-
kimonos
beauty- fairy- cherry-
beauties fairies cherries family-
curry-curries diary- spy- families
diaries spies duty-
duties

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 27

-s -y chimney- kidney- donkey- monkey-
-ves -f chimneys kidneys donkeys monkeys
jersy-jerseys
-s -f/fe guy-guys toy- toys elf-elves key-keys
-s/ -f
ves calf-calves life- knife- loaf-
lives knives loaves
shelf-shelves
half-halves sheaf- thief-
leaf-leaves sheaves thieves

wife-
wives

chef-chefs chief- reef-
chiefs reefs

roof- giraffe- safe- cliff-
roofs giraffes safes cliffs

dwarf- handkerchief- hoof-
dwarves handkerchiefs hooves

scarf-scarfs/ves turf- wharf-wharfs/
turfs/turves wharves

 We change the vowels of some nouns to make them plural.

axis-axes goose-geese cactus-cacti louse-lice crisis-crises
mouse-mice oasis-oases fungus-fungi tooth-teeth datum - data

 We add –en or –ren.

ox-oxen child-children

 Some change have same singular and plural forms.

advice, knowledge, aircraft, music, baggage, news, cattle, offspring, cod,
scenery, deer, series, fish, sheep, furniture, species, information

Instant Practice

In each sentence, underline only the plural nouns.

1. Many sheep and horses grazed in the fields.

2. There were cows and calves near the fence.
28
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

3. We looked out the windows at the healthy crops.

4. Look at that flock of geese across the road!

5. Some farmers sell potatoes and other vegetables.

6. You don’t hear stereos and the sounds of beeping horns in the country.

7. Some boys and girls are talking with their teachers.

8. These children like both playing games and singing songs.

9. Those men and women have carried their own umbrellas.

10. These monkeys destroyed the nests of those poor birds.

Instant Practice

In each sentence, find and underline the plural nouns that have been
formed incorrectly. Write the correctly spelled plural nouns on the line.
1. We will have many storys to tell after our camping trips.
2. Several deers approached our campsites.
3. Do the buzzs of those bees frighten you?
4. Fred and Lisa took many photoes with their new cameras.
5. Dad was hoping to catch several bass and trouts for our suppers.
6. I hope our stereoes don’t frighten the animals.
7. Let’s keep our food items several foots above the ground.
8. Where are the three boxs of potato chips?
9. The berries on those bushs look good for eating.
10. Our mothers will be pleased if we bring back some pie.

Grammar Focus: Collective Nouns

Read the following sentences.
1. Our scout troop enjoyed a lot at the bonfire last night.
2.The crowd waited outside the store for Summer Sale.
3. My brother’s football team won the match.

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 29

4. Mrs. Lena’s class went to hiking trip.
5.That pride of lions was roaming in the forest.
6.The choir sang at the school function.
7.Our family is known in the city.
8.Their company recycles used materials.
9.A colony of ants climbed the wall in my room.
10.The jury did not agree to judgment.

Quick A collective noun refers to the names of a group of people, places
Tip or things. The words like troop, crowd, team, class, pride, choir,
family, company, colony, jury, hive, herd, fleet, nest, host and crew
are some collective nouns.

Listening Practice

Repeat the following collective nouns after your teacher.

a board of directors a choir of singers a class of pupils

a chain of events a chain of mountains a cloud of insects

a company of actors a crew of sailors a crowd of people

a dynasty of kings a galaxy of film stars a gang of thieves

a group of dancers a horde of savages a host of angels

a line of kings/rulers a mob of rioters a pack of thieves

a party of friends a patrol of policemen a regiment of soldiers

a staff of teachers a team of players a tribe of natives

a troop of scouts a party of friends a flock of worshippers

an album of stamps an anthology of poems a bunch of flowers

an army of soldiers a bevy of beauties/girls a band of musicians

30
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Instant Practice

Underline collective nouns in the following sentences.

1. The meeting has the participation of a board of directors.

2. The crowd was clapping, yelling and cheering.

3. The jury was arguing about the importance of evidence.

4. A whole company of soldiers is marching in the parade.

5. A gaggle of geese is running every which way in the barnyard.

6. Those people live in North America.

7. The police have arrested the suspect.

8. That troupe of actors always stays at the Grand Hotel.

9. The committee is handing in their ballots.

10. Our school band plays many lively marches.

11. A big colony of ants lives under the front porch.

12. The government is entitled to collect taxes.

Grammar Focus: Gender Nouns

Read the following gender nouns.

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
actor actress lion lioness
baron baroness master mistress
count/earl countess murderer murderess
duke duchess priest priestess
god goddess prince princess
heir heiress shepherd shepherdess
host hostess tiger tigress
hunter huntress waiter waitress

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 31

Quick Masculine nouns are words for men, boys and male animals.
Tip Feminine nouns are words for women, girls and female animals.

Instant Practice

Match the following masculine nouns with their feminine words.
1.bachelor bitch
2.brother hen
3.cock sister
4.dog mistresss
5.father lady
6.master spinster
7.gentleman witch
8.wizard madam
9.sir wife
10.husband mother

1ASSESS YOURSELF

Write whether the underlined nouns are proper or common.
1. I have bought a Cello Pen as my pen is lost.
2. They stood next to the Niagara Falls.
3. Do you like apple or any other fruits?
4.An ambulance is a vehicle that carries sick people.
5. Himani did not agree with the man.
6. She loves to visit Dhadingbeshi.
7. Do you like Honda or Shine bike?
8. He studies in The Excel School. It is a new school in Kathmandu.
9. May I invite Tom to join us?

10.My car is very old.

32
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

2ASSESS YOURSELF

Put the following nouns in the right columns.

liquid banana rain player tea
water book rice elephant tennis
weather key sadness glass time
wine cup salt watch toothpaste
wood marble sand car traffic
wool hammer snow radio trousers
work bed space bulb vinegar
butter pepper petrol plastic oxygen
dish bowel hand suitcase laptop

Countable Nouns Uncountable Nouns

3ASSESS YOURSELF

Write the plural of the given nouns.

wife radio
city shelf
potato hobby
boy team
sandwich box
loaf coach

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 33

goose foot
field mouse
grass ox
man woman
animal louse
leash fly

4ASSESS YOURSELF

Read the following passage and write ‘S’ for singular and write ‘P’ for
the plural nouns.

Our teacher is a very nice lady. She’s very kind to all the children in the class
and she tells us very funny stories. Yesterday, she told a story about the animals
on a farm. They all had a race. The pigs and sheep ran faster than the ducks and
cows, but the heroes of the story were the mice. They were faster than all the other
animals, even though they had the shortest legs!

5ASSESS YOURSELF

Read the following letters and find correct feminine nouns for the
following masculine nouns.

V N U N WO MA N I

I MA R E G O O S E

XYDZ BP URS Y

E C O WE N MO T S

NI E CE L KRS W

fox ___________ monk ___________ nephew ___________

man ___________buck ___________ horse ___________

bull___________ drone ___________ gander ___________

34
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Vocabulary in Use
Choose the right word for the given pictures.
tube tub
can cane
pine pin
rob robe
cub cube
kite kit
tap tape

mane man

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 35

GET PRONOUNS 3
STARTED
Chapter

Read the following text.

A pelican is a bird with a very large beak. It uses its beak to
pick up a lot of fish. It can’t eat all the fish at one time. It must
hold them in its beak until its stomach is ready. Of course, this
doesn’t bother the pelican at all. It is its habit to eat this way.

People have food habits and customs, too. These are the activities that we do all
the time. But people are different from pelicans. We tell our children not to take
too much food. “Your eyes are bigger than your stomach,” we say. It is too bad to
take more food than we can eat.

Other food customs tell us not to eat certain kinds of food. The health food
movement is new, but it is popular. These people don’t eat much sugar, and they
don’t drink strong coffee, tea, or alcohol.

Vegetarians don’t eat meat. There are many reasons for this. They don’t want to kill
animals. They don’t want to become fat, and meat has a lot of fat. Some vegetarians
just don’t like the taste of meat. We have another saying about food: “One man’s

meat is another man’s poison.”

Do In the given text, the coloured words are pronouns. They are
you used in place of nouns. They are used to avoid unnecessary
Know? repetition of noun in writing.

Speaking Practice

Answer these questions based on the given text.
a. What is a pelican?
b. What word is used to refer to the bird ‘pelican’?
c. What does the word ‘they’ refer to in the text?
d. What does the word ‘them’ refer to in the text?
e. What does the word ‘this’ refer to in the text?

36
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Quick A pronoun is an identifying word used instead of a noun and inflected
in the same way nouns are. It is a word that takes the place of a common
Tip noun or a proper noun. There are different kinds of pronouns.

Listening Practice

Repeat these pronouns after your teacher.

Number Singular Third Plural Second Third
Person First Second animate First
masculine you they
archaic modern he we you them
us yours theirs
Subject I thou you him feminine unspecified inanimate ours your their
pronoun you she they it our yourselves themselves
yours his her them it ourselves
Object me thee yours her theirs its
pronoun yourself his her their its
herself themself itself
Possessive mine thine himself
pronoun

Possessive my thy
determiner

Reflexive myself thyself
pronoun

Instant Practice

Underline the pronouns in the following sentences.

1. Yamuna is a very stubborn child. She just stared at me when I told her to
stop.

2. The largest slice of cake is mine.

3. What do you think of yourself? We are number one.

4. He asked me whether I liked that picture.

5. They asked us whether we were going to the hospital.

6. My friend asked his brother where his spectacles were.

7. She asked her friend why that girl was not looking at her.

8. I often do my work myself.

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 37

9. Your activities show that you are an aimless person.

10. It is really an informative programme I have ever participated.

Now list out any eight pronouns you have underlined and use any five of
them in your own words.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5

Grammar Focus: Personal Pronouns

Look and read the following table.

Person/Number Pronouns Pronouns as the Pronouns for
1st person singular
as subjects objects possession

I me my, mine

2nd person singular you you your, yours

3rd person singular he, she, it him, her, it his, her, hers, its

1st person plural we us our, ours

2nd person plural you you your, yours

3rd person plural they them their, theirs

Quick Personal pronouns are those that refer to person or thing. Personal
Tip pronouns have different forms depending on their person (first, second
or third) and, usually, number (singular and plural). They also take
different forms depending on whether they stand for the subject or the
object of the sentence. Look at the following table:

38
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Pronouns Examples
My name is Nirmal.

First persons are the person speaking. I am a student.

We live in Pokhara.

Our city is clean.
You are from that village, aren’t you?
Second persons are the persons we are Where are your friends?
speaking to.
These shoes are yours, aren’t they?

She is Hema.

Her sister is a teacher.

He is Kamal.

Third persons are the persons being His brother is a doctor.
spoken to.

It is a torch light.

Do you need it?

They are poor people.

Their life is sad.
I am a student. I study in grade four.

You are from the Netherlands.

Subject pronouns are used as the He is one of the best players of our
subject of the sentences before a verb. school team.

The subject of a sentence is the person She has a new car today.

or thing doing something. Subject It is raining now.
pronouns are as follows: I, you, he, she,

it, we, they, who, whoever. We must pay taxes on time.

They are still playing.

Who is your best friend?

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 39

My sister helps me with every work.

I will give you a nice pen.

The teacher gave him a story book.

Object pronouns are used as the object Rita is a good girl. Everyone likes her.
after a verb and preposition.

The object of the sentence is whoever I have bought a watch. Do you like to
or whatever is having something done see it?

to it; it is the object of the verb: me, They gave us a note copy each.

you, him, her, it, us, them, whom. Our friends are coming today. Do you

like to see them?

Aman is the boy whom everyone
likes.

Instant Practice

Fill in the blanks with correct personal pronouns.

_______name is Dipesh. _____am the youngest person
in _____family.

Ram is _______ father. _______ is a teacher.

Sita is _______ mother. _______ is a lawyer.

_______ have a brother and two sisters.

_______ are Prem, Priya and Paru.

_______ have a dog. _______ is called Lucky.

Lucky, _______ are a good dog.

My family and _______ live in a big city. _______ have
an apartment.

Good morning, all! _______ must support______.

40
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Instant Practice

Fill in the blanks with correct object pronouns.

______ name is Shally.

I am standing on my own. Look at ______.

My mother is kind. Everybody likes ______.

Lorin, I told ______to tidy your bed!

Sarita and Junu! Dad is waiting for ______!

Lucky and I are playing in the park. Dad is watching
______.

You must not play with the knife. Give ______ to ______.

Pick up your toys and put ______away.

Baby birds cannot fly. Mother bird has to feed ______.

Tom likes riding my bicycle. I sometimes lend ______ to
______.

Instant Practice

Fill in each gap with either a subject pronoun or object pronoun.

1. Are__________ going to finish your dinner?

2. Oman saw __________at the restaurant. _____were having lunch.

3. Have you seen my dad? __________’s wearing a red shirt.

4. Her shoes were dirty, so __________cleaned __________.

5. I don’t like Christopher. __________ really annoys__________.

6. I’m going to the cinema. Do __________ want to come with__________?

7. My brother rang last night.__________ was great to talk to__________.

8. The boy came up to__________ and took _____ hand.

9. We always go to bed early. Ten o’clock is late for__________.

10. Your bag is over there. Take__________ with__________ when you go.

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 41

Grammar Focus: Self Pronouns

Read the following sentences.

I made this coat myself. I: myself.
Be alert with the blade. You’ll cut yourself. You: yourself (singular)
Milan is looking at himself in the mirror.
Soma has wounded herself. yourselves (plural)
Our cat washes itself after each meal. He: himself
We organized the get-together all by ourselves. She: herself.
Come inside, children, and get yourselves a It: itself
seat. We: ourselves
Baby birds are too immature to take care of They: themselves
themselves.

Quick The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves,
Tip yourselves and themselves are called reflexive pronouns. They refer
to the person or animal that is the subject of the verb.

Instant Practice

Fill in the blanks with the correct reflexive pronouns.

1. Children, you must do the homework ____________.

2. Dip defended ____________ against the bullies.

3. I hurt ____________ in the playground yesterday.

4. Kamal, you must act __________ before your friends.

5. My brother wrote a poem by ___________.

6. My sister always makes the bed by ____________.

7. No one can help us. We have to help ____________.

8. She cleans her room by ________.

9. The dog is scratching ____________.

10. They painted the wall all by ____________.

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Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Instant Practice

Look at the following pictures and write what they can do themselves.

Kamal Risav
Bhanu and Mohan Priya
Dhanraj and Kamal
Lolita

Binod Suyog

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 43

Grammar Focus: Demonstrative Pronouns

Read the following sentences.

This is my school.

That is my school.
These are donkeys.
Those are donkeys.
This is a mountain.

That is a mountain.

These are horses. Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4
Those are horses.
44

Quick The words this, these, that and those are called demonstrative
Tip pronouns. They are showing words. The words this and that are
used with singular countable nouns but these and those are used
with plural countable nouns. This and these are used to show near
objects but that and those are used to show far objects.

Speaking Practice

Ask and answer.
A: What is this?
B: ___________

A: What is that?
B: ___________

A: What are these?
B: ___________

A: What are those?
B: ___________
A: What is this?
B: ___________
A: What is that?
B: ___________

A: What are these?
B: ___________
A: What are those?
B: ___________

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 45

Instant Practice

Fill in the gaps with correct words.
1. _______ is a pen. (This, These)
2. _______ are bags. (This, These)
3. _______ are houses. (That, Those)
4. _______ is an elephant. (That, Those)
5. _______ are cell phones. (This, These)
6. _______ is my school. (This, These)
7. _______ is our canteen. (That, Those)
8. _______ are our computers. (This, These)
9. Are ______your books. (that, those)
10. Is _____your sharpener? (this, these)

1ASSESS YOURSELF

Fill in the blanks with the correct pronouns.
1. Paru and I are sisters. _______ share a bedroom together.
2. Sunita isn’t well. My father is taking _______ to see a doctor.
3. My father is a teacher. _______ teaches English.
4. All my friends like _______ very much.
5. Students, _______ are making too much noise!
6. Who are these people? Where are _______ from?
7. Kristina is a doctor. _______ works in a hospital.
8. The sky is getting dark. _______ is going to rain.
9. Nita, we are all waiting for _______. Are you coming with _______?

46
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

10. May _______ use your pen?
11. _______ can return _______ pen tomorrow.
12. What are _______reading, Dina?

2ASSESS YOURSELF

Replace the following underlined nouns with correct pronouns.
1. Mohan is a teacher. Mohan teaches in school.
2. Nina was a very dedicated person. Nina got the best employee award.
3. My school is a Secondary Level School. My school is very far.
4. Karan and Krishna are best friends. Karan and Krishna became friends in grade
one.
5. Binod and I live together. Binod and I are best neighbours.
6. Salam is a doctor. I like Salam very much.
7. Ritisha was an actress. All her fans liked Ritisha very much.
8. I have a dog. I like to play with the dog.
9. My friends Ganesh and Dip are coming. I will give Ganesh and Dip a
present.
10. The dogs are barking. The dogs bark all the time.

3ASSESS YOURSELF

Fill in the blanks with correct self pronouns.

1. Are you enjoying ________?

2. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening and watching TV by ________.

3. The smelly, dirty dog shook the water off ________.

4. I still know how to enjoy ________!

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 47

5. He acquitted ________brilliantly in the exams.
6. I haven’t enjoyed ________so much for a long time.
7. What have you got to say for ________?
8. We may talk of beautiful things but beauty________is abstract.
9. We must know everything all by ________.
10. One must respect ________.

4ASSESS YOURSELF

Fill in the blank spaces with correct pronouns.

_______ parents were too careful. _______ were worried about _______ and
_______ two brothers all the time. _______ parents both had terrible childhoods so
_______ wanted _______ to be perfect. Every minute of _______ lives was spent
doing expensive things. _______ never got time to be kids just playing on _______
bikes in the street. What _______ don’t understand is that _______ didn’t want
_______ childhood to be perfect. _______ wanted it to be normal. _______ were
spoilt and _______ don’t think _______ taught _______ the value of working
for things. _______ learned that when _______ left home and started to spend
_______ own money!

_______ parents are great. _______ are very fair and _______ always discuss
things with _______. Dad worries about _______ little girl but Mum likes to
give _______ enough freedom to learn from _______ mistakes. The only rule is
that _______ must tell _______ where _______’m going and who _______ am
with. _______ think _______ parents have got it right: _______ are interested in
_______ but _______ don’t want to control _______.

48
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

Vocabulary in Use

For each image below, choose the word from the word bank that
best names each picture.

knee comb lamb whale bomb thumb

bun stethoscope palanquin ghost anchor scissors

Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4 49

GET ARTICLES 4
STARTED
Chapter

Read the following description.

Many years ago, there lived an emperor, who had a liking
for wearing new shoes. He wore a set of new shoes in an
hour’s interval. He used to go riding on his horse merely
to show off his shoes. He said to all his people, “I think
the best way a man can spend money is by buying the
decent pair of shoes!” People used to think him to be a
bit ridiculous.

One day he wished to get the most magnificent shoes with a remarkable quality.
People had never heard of such a thing before. He called a cobbler and gave him
a large sum of gold coins from the royal treasury to buy the finest materials. A
few days passed but the cobbler did not turn up. Then, he sent the Prime Minister
to examine the progress. After an hour, the Prime Minister came with an empty
hand. The poor emperor could not believe that he had such a liar in his kingdom.

Do The words a, an and the in the above given description are
you articles. They are demonstrative adjectives. There are two types
Know? of articles in English. They are indefinite ‘a’ ‘an’ and definite
‘the’.

Speaking Practice

Answer these questions based on the given description.
a. What are the words that are countable?
b. What are the words that are uncountable?
c. Does the word ‘emperor’ start with vowel or consonant?
d. Does the word ‘cobbler’ start with vowel or consonant?
e. Is the word ‘shoes’ singular or plural?
f. What is the difference between ‘a cobbler’ and ‘the cobbler’?

50
Dynamic English Grammar & Composition Book-4

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