English Grammar & Composition 8-(17-18) - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2022)

Collins English Grammar and Composition 8

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Collins English Grammar and Composition 8

Series Editor

Samson Thomas

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Preeti Roychoudhury

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Published by Collins India A division of HarperCollinsPublishers India Private Limited HarperCollins Publishers A-75, Sector 57, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201301, India 1 London Bridge Street, London, SE1 9GF, United Kingdom 2 Bloor Street East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 1A8, Canada Lvl 13, 201 Elizabeth Street (PO Box A565, NSW, 1235), Sydney NSW 2000, Australia 195 Broadway, New York, NY 10007, USA Browse the complete Collins catalogue at www.collins.in First published in 2018 © HarperCollinsPublishers India Private Limited 2018 Reprint: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-93-5264-564-0 Collins is a registered trademark of HarperCollinsPublishers Limited All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the Publisher. This book is sold subject to the conditions that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. Artwork and layout by Q2A Media Services Pvt. Ltd. Cover layout by Manish Kumar Printed and bound by

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Let’s Get Started Read the passage carefully. Circle the adjectives and underline the nounsthey qualify. Dibakar Bhattacharya was our aged neighbour. He was my dear grandfather’s age, and had always been very kind to me. He was the one who introduced me to the melodious songs of Rabindranath Tagore, the nail-biting mysteries of Sherlock Holmes stories and the nonsense rhymes of Edward Lear. We would often discuss interesting stories I had read or a new song I had listened to. He even taught me how to click photos using his old but sturdy Leica camera. He passed away a few years ago, but his memories remain in my heart like a bright ray of light shining through a cloudy sky.

An adjective describes or modifies the noun in a sentence.

Examples: The magnificent display of fireworks drew enthusiastic praise from the crowd. The fat and jolly baker offered fluffy muffins to us.

Kinds of Adjectives Adjectives can be of the following types: quality, quantity, number, demonstrative, interrogative and possessive. Adjectives of quality describe the nature or quality of a person or thing, or state what kind they are.

Examples: Alia is Pratima’s eldest daughter. This is a remarkable book about the origin of the species. The witch flew on a crooked broomstick. Adjectives of quantity denote the quantity of things.

Examples: I would like some tea with breakfast. There was little rice left in the pot. Adjectives of number show how many persons or things there are. These are called cardinals. Adjectives of number also show the order of things. These are called ordinals.

Examples: There are four little birds in the nest. She came second in the relay race. 22

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Demonstrative adjectives point out the specific persons or things being referred to. They are this, that, these and those.

Examples: She gave that book to her best friend. These phones on display in the store are all quite trendy. Interrogative adjectives are used to ask questions about nouns. Theyare which, whose and what.

Examples: Which book has been awarded the Booker Prize this year? Whose house has been burnt down in the fire? What colour do you want the kitchen to be painted? Possessive adjectives indicate possession or belonging. They are my, your, her, his, its, our, your and their.

Watch Out! Demonstrative and interrogative adjectives always come before the nouns they qualify, while demonstrative and interrogative pronouns don’t. Which room is Shyamal’s? (interrogative adjective) Which is Shyamal’s room? (interrogative pronoun) This violin belongs to the young musician. (demonstrative adjective) This is the young musician’s violin. (demonstrative pronoun)

Examples: There is a wonderful story about how the camel got its hump. Her book has won many awards because of its excellent plot. A Fill in the blanks with the given adjectives and state what type they are. golden










1. There were recognize.

people at the wedding whom I did not ears of corn shone in the sun.

2. The 3. I have heard

stories from my grandmother. child of that family.

4. Sunil is the 5. The dog started wagging

tail when it smelt the food.


of the class raised their hands to answer the question of the teacher.


song should be sung at the school’s annual function?

8. We have 9.

cake left over from yesterday. idea was it to carry the laptop inside the cinema?

10. He was seated in the


Order of Adjectives If there are several adjectives describing a single noun, they are placed in the following order. Quantity → Opinion → Size → Age → Colour → Origin → Material → Purpose

Example: Several unusual tiny old green Greek copper cooking vessels were found at the excavation site. 23

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B Rewrite the sentences placing the adjectives in the proper order. 1. The princess wore a small simple cotton white dress. 2. The university boasted a large local talented faculty. 3. A small wooden useful French writing table was gifted to him by his grandfather. 4. The Indian large antique heavy silver fan was sold for Rs 50,000. 5. A old bright effective idea can often solve a tricky problem. 6. Rome, the capital old grand city, was once the heart of western civilization.

Comparison of Adjectives Adjectives can be used to compare the qualities possessed by people or things. Examples: I am wearing a warm cardigan because it’s chilly outside. My fleece jacket is warmer than the cardigan. My feather jacket is the warmest of all my winter clothes. The base adjective warm is said to be in the positive degree. The word warmer is used in the comparative degree. The adjective warmest is used in the superlative degree.

Forming the Degrees of Comparison a. The comparative degree of a single-syllable adjective can be formed by adding -er to the base word. Examples: clever → cleverer, bright → brighter, near → nearer b. The comparative degree can also be formed by adding more before a multisyllable adjective.

Watch Out! 1. Certain adjectives like excellent and unique do not have either the comparative or the superlative form. 2. Double comparatives and double superlatives are incorrect. This is the more faster car of the two. (✗) This is the faster car of the two. (✓) This is the most fastest car in the world. (✗) This is the fastest car in the world. (✓)

Examples: beautiful → more beautiful, exciting → more exciting c. In sentences using the comparative form, the word than comes after the adjective. Example: She is more interested in mathematics than in English. d. The superlative form of the single-syllable adjective is created by adding -est to the base adjective. Examples: clever → cleverest, bright → brightest, bold → boldest e. The superlative form can also be created by adding most before adjectives. This is usually done in case of multi-syllable adjectives. Examples: intelligent → most intelligent, boring → most boring f. Some adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative forms. Examples: good → better → best little → less → least


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Changing Degrees of Comparison of Sentences Read these sentences. No other playwright in the world is as famous as Shakespeare. No other playwright in the world is more famous than Shakespeare. Shakespeare is the most famous playwright in the world. All three sentences convey the same meaning but use different degrees of comparison. Look at some more sentences. No other chilli I have ever had is as hot as this one. This chilli is hotter than any other I have ever had. This is one of the hottest chillies I have ever had. C Fill in the blanks with suitable forms of the given adjectives. 1. He is the

(clever) of the two brothers.

2. The passengers were taken to the hotel 3. Honesty is the

(good) policy.

4. The temple is adorned with details than we realized at first. 5. The king was the empire had seen. 6. This is the backache.

(near) to the station. (complex)

(generous) ruler the (farther) I can go with this

7. What is the ever done?

(interesting) thing you have

8. The fabric is

(soft) to the touch.

9. Varun is the

(fast) of all the athletes.

10. This decision is not the

(easy) one to take.

D Rewrite the sentences after correcting the errors. 1. Muralitharan is the higher wicket taker in Test cricket. 2. Lionel Messi is considered by many to be the better player of this generation. 3. The physics exam was the harder test I have taken this semester. 4. Pandav is the less hardworking person in the group. 5. Reading a more interesting book is always a good way to pass the time. 6. The blue dress is prettiest than the red one. 7. The blue whale is the larger aquatic animal. 8. The orchids were the more colourful among all the flowers in the garden. 25

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Any usually carries a negative meaning in a sentence. It is used with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns. Examples: I do not have any books to read over the weekend. (used with plural countable noun) She does not want any help; all she wants is some time. (used with uncountable noun) Do you have any leftover food in your kitchen? (used with uncountable noun) Much and many are used to show a large quantity or number of something. Much is used with uncountable nouns and many is used with countable nouns. Examples: How much time do we have to complete the test papers? How many minutes are left for the bell to ring? E Fill in the blanks with the correct quantifiers. 1.

(Few/A few) mangoes are left in the basket.

2. Only (few/a few) spoons are left in the cutlery cabinet. Where did the rest go? 3. How

(much/many) does one litre of milk cost here?


(Several/Any) species of migratory birds come to Bharatpur every winter.


(A few/Few) days have been wasted waiting for the results. Now we must hurry up.

6. I have (little/a little) choice in the matter. It all depends on what my partner, Ramesh decides. (few/a few) more bowls of this kind? 7. Do you have ceramic bowls that I had left were cracked, so I had to throw them away. (much/many) disorder in the group.

8. There is 9. How

(many/few) of you want to join the trek? (Few/Little) people think that tomorrow is a holiday.


11. I have tasted Hyderabadi food

(many/much) times.

(The little/A little) that I know of him suggests that he is a man of high principles.

12. 13. Doesn’t he have

(any/few) food at home?

14. Rita has 15.

(Few/The few)

(many/the little) awards to her credit.

(Few/A few) days after the storm, we started rebuilding the broken houses. There (few/a few) left standing. (A few/The few) that remained were were so badly damaged that they would have to be almost entirely rebuilt. (a little/little) bit of pickle with my lunch. But there was (little/a little) left in the bottle. I kept (the little/a little) that remained for my sister.

16. I usually have

F Fill in the blanks with some, any, much or many. 1. So of the street.

people had lined up to buy tickets for the fi lm that the line stretched to the end

2. How can a nation make

progress without empowering its women?


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3. I would like

cheese in my omelette. information about information that she got would

4. The anxious mother was waiting for her son’s whereabouts. have put her mind at ease.

time to prepare ourselves for the 5. We don’t have contest. We go on stage in half an hour. times, but it always starts leaking again after a few days.

6. I have repaired the tap

hope and determination.

7. We played with 8. Do you have

idea how

9. We are thinking of 10. There isn’t

an injection hurts?

simple arguments to win this debate. rice left in the bowl.

G Fill in the blanks with some or any. 1. The doctors were glad to hear that the patient wished to have soup today. 2. Tanuja’s mother explained to her that she did not have money to buy her a new dress. 3.

students in the hostel take extra classes.


of my friends will be coming over for lunch today.

5. ‘Do

of your friends get pocket money at such a young age?’ asked Rohita’s mother.

6. At the end of the lesson, the teacher asked us whether we had


Interrogatives Interrogatives are used for asking questions. Some commonly used interrogatives are what, which, whose, how much, and how many.

H Fill in the blanks with suitable interrogatives. 1. 2. Under

lesson are you talking about? supervision have you left the toddler?


bag has been stolen?


girl has been chosen for this role?


is your opinion on this subject?


is her favourite subject?


train has been delayed?


do these bananas cost?


students have volunteered for the assignment?


permission is required for joining the excursion? 33

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Rewrite the sentences after correcting the errors. 1. A many children ran out of their classes when they saw smoke coming out of the building. 2. You could add any salt to the dish to make it more delicious. 3. Few boys were talking to the new student in their class. 4. Who cut down those tree? 5. The little hard work now will go a long way in ensuring a bright future. 6. Can you pass me a water please? 7. We asked few students to find out what actually happened that day. 8. I do not have many time left; I have to go to the airport to pick up my mother. 9. Save little money that you still have. Do not spend it on useless things. 10. Much students will not be able to attend school today because of the transport strike. 11. My mother carefully checked how many groceries she had left.

Let Us Write Write a first person account (350-400 words) of your experiences as a student volunteer for the relief team of an area affected by natural calamity. You could use these words in your account. destruction, suffering, food, clothes, water, shelter, help, rescue

Use these determiners in your account. — a, an, the

— either, neither, each, every

— this, that, these, those

— some, any, much, many, several

— my, our, your, his, her

— what, which, whose


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Let’s Get Started Fill in the blanks with a, an or the. Years went by, and Giant became old and feeble man. He could armchair, watched children at their not play any more, so he sat in games and admired his garden. ‘I have many beautiful flowers,’ he said, ‘but most beautiful flowers of all.’ children are Winter now, for he One winter morning, he looked out of a window as he was dressing. He did not hate Spring asleep, and that flowers were resting. Suddenly he rubbed his eyes knew that it was merely marvellous sight. In farthest corner of in wonder, and looked and looked. It certainly was tree quite covered with lovely white blossoms. Its branches were all golden, and silver fruit garden was little boy he had loved. Downstairs ran Giant in hung down from them, and underneath it stood garden. He hurried across grass, and came near to child. great joy, and out into You know that articles can be of two types: indefinite (a, an) and definite (the).

Uses of the Indefinite Articles The indefinite article a is used for the following. 1. Before a noun which refers to any member of a group and not a specific member. Examples: I want to read a book. Piu wants to see a film. 2. Before a countable noun. Examples: a girl, a ship, a basket 3. Before a consonant or a vowel with a consonant sound. Examples: a library, a university The indefinite article an is also used to refer to a non-specific person or thing. It is also used for the following. 1. Before nouns that begin with a vowel sound. Examples: an apple, an orchard, an oven 2. Before nouns that begin with a consonant that has a vowel sound. Examples: an MLA, an NGO 3. Before words that begin with a silent h. Examples: an heir, an hour, an honest boy, an honour 35

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Simple Future Tense The simple future tense is used for actions that will take place at some point in the future.

Examples: We shall set out for our trek tomorrow. He will study economics from next year. She shall complete this assignment soon.

Using Simple Present and Present Continuous to show Future Time Read these sentences. She leaves for Paris tomorrow. The fi lm is about to start now. We are going to leave for Paris tomorrow. In the first two sentences, the verb is in the simple present tense. In the third sentence, the verb is in the present continuous tense. However, all three actions are set to happen in the future. When simple present tense is used to show future time, it either uses the base form of the verb or the structure: is + about to + infinitive. When the present continuous tense is used to show future time, it uses the present continuous tense or the structure: be + going to + infinitive A Fill in the blanks with the simple future tense of the given verbs. 1. He

(fetch) the forms tomorrow.

you 2. What about the book donation drive?


(suffer) if she neglects her health.

3. She

(arrive) on time.

4. Hopefully, the train 5. We

(wait) till the storm blows over.

6. She

(dance) on stage for the very first time tomorrow. the farmers

7. What forecast for this season?

(say) when they hear about the rain

B Fill in the blanks with the simple present or present continuous tense of the given verbs. 1. The examination

on Friday. (start) the station early as the train is at 6 a.m. (reach)

2. We must 3. I have promised myself that I 4. I

for a music theory examination next month. (appear) any moment. (rain)

5. It looks as though it 6.

swimming by next year. (learn)


all your money on this piece of jewellery? (spend)


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7. We

a hill station over the weekend. (visit)

8. We a party for my parents’ wedding anniversary tomorrow. (host) 9. The truck carrying all our furniture tomorrow. (arrive) 10. We (start)

practising the song from tomorrow.

11. She

kathak in tomorrow’s dance competition. (perform)



in the sports meet? (participate) fish curry for tonight’s dinner. (cook)

13. My mother

a concert this Christmas to raise funds for the slum-dwellers

14. We of the area. (organize)

(build) a block of high-rise flats in the neighbourhood.

15. Mr Mehta

Future Continuous Tense The future continuous tense talks about an action that will occur in the future and is expected to continue for awhile.

Examples: He will be volunteering for the presentation. They shall be participating in the tournament. She will be singing in front of an audience for the first time. The structure of the future continuous tense is: will/shall + be + present participle form of the verb.

C Fill in the blanks with the future continuous tense of the given verbs. 1. They

(leave) for Kanpur this summer vacation. (impose) a fine on tax offenders

2. The government this year. 3. She 4. They to the picnic.

(verify) the details before signing the agreement. (miss) out on many things if they don’t come

(admit) as many as ten new students this year 5. We to the school photography club. 6. I 7. What examinations?

(fi ll) out my visa application form tomorrow. he

(study) after he finishes his board


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Future Perfect Tense The future perfect tense refers to an action that will start and be completed at a definite time in the future.

Examples: By this time next year, she will have spent two years in Pune. They will have finished shopping for groceries by 3 p.m. I will have left for college by the time she arrives from the station. The structure of the future perfect tense is: will/shall + have + past participle form of the verb. D Fill in the blanks with the future perfect tense of the given verbs. 1. You 2. They

(receive) all the pending payments by Friday. (complete) the flyover by this time next year. (finish) their dinner by the time we reach the

3. The guests venue.

(grow) up by the time the house is built.

4. The children 5. They

(arrange) the banquet hall for the reception by 5 p.m.

6. We

(finish) our drama practice by the time the school gets over at 3 p.m.

7. She

(knit) a sweater for each of her grandchildren by the end of winter.

Future Perfect Continuous The future perfect continuous tense refers to an action which will begin in the future and continue for a while till a given moment.

Examples: I will have been studying English for two years by the end of next year. By 2020, we will have been working for this organization for two decades. He will have been training under the national coach for two years by the end of this year. The structure of the future perfect continuous tense is: will/shall + have been + present participle form of the verb. E Complete the sentences using the future perfect continuous tense of the given verbs. 1. Sukhdev

(take) classes in classical music for four years by 2019.

2. By Wednesday, we 3. By the end of this semester, I 4. By December, his parents 5. By tomorrow, the librarian

(prepare) for the festivities for a month. (travel) non-stop for a month for my project. (live) in different cities for five years. (campaign) for the restoration of old books for a month.

6. By the end of this week, the substitute teacher 7. By dinner time, she

(teach) us for two weeks.

(cook) for five hours for the guests.


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Let’s Get Started Complete the sentences using the appropriate forms of the given words. 1. The peacock was dancing 2. The train was moving

in the rain. (happy) over the bridge. (slow)

3. The gorilla thumped its chest

. (angry)

4. The designs on the antique vase were

made. (beautiful)

Did you notice that all the words describe a verb or an adjective? You have learnt that adverbs are words that modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Grammar Byte

Kinds of Adverbs Adverbs can be of different types depending on the function they perform in a sentence.

Adverbs of manner are often formed by adding -ly to adjectives. merry → merrily

Adverbs of manner indicate how an action is performed.

honest → honestly

Words such as happily, bravely, fast, quickly, gladly and sorrowfully are some common adverbs of manner. Examples: The crowd cheered heartily for their favourite performer. The baby smiled happily in her mother’s lap. Adverbs of time indicate when the action is performed.

Words such as since, later, ago, before, today, still, yet and soon are some common adverbs of time. Examples: The fabled houses of the rich have disappeared since; only the ruins remain. I knew about his real identity long before it was discovered by the detective. Adverbs of place indicate where the action is performed.

Words such as here, there, away, near, everywhere and nowhere are some common adverbs of place. Examples: The rats followed the Pied Piper everywhere. I could not find the bunch of keys anywhere. 77

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Adjective Phrases Adjective phrases modify the noun in the sentence. They perform the function of an adjective and usually come immediately after the noun they qualify.

Examples: The man with the scar on his arm is a detective. The girl in the blue dress is our class monitor. He lives in a house built with adobe bricks. B Underline the adjective phrases in these sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The fi lm is too long and boring. A lifestyle without any physical activity is not very healthy. The painting is of great value. The restaurant serves food made with organic produce. Sarthak is a man of great courage. The back alley was a narrow lane littered with garbage. The gown made of the finest silk made her look exquisitely elegant.

Adverb Phrases Adverb phrases modify the verb, the adjective or another adverb in a sentence.

Examples: He danced in a graceful manner. (adverb phrase of manner) She left the stage after the performance. (adverb phrase of time) Randhir lives near his office. (adverb phrase of place) The car drove past me at great speed. (adverb phrase of degree) My family goes for a holiday to the seaside twice a year. (adverb phrase of frequency) I wore a thick pullover for warmth. (adverb phrase of reason) C Underline the adverb phrases in these sentences and state their type. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The children finished their homework in a hurry. I shall meet you at the book store in an hour. Sonali is waiting for me near the shopping complex. The doctors examined the child’s eyes very carefully. You may add flavour to the dish with herbs. We decorated the house for a party. We dined in a cosy restaurant around the corner.

D Underline the phrases and state their types. 1. Growing organic vegetables is my grandfather’s hobby. 2. The dog with the brown spots belongs to my neighbour. 3. The doctor came to check on the patient thrice a day. 111

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4. The lawyer is a man of high principles. 5. We made a butterscotch cake for his birthday. 6. The lady in the red dress talked to me in a harsh manner. 7. She is a woman of great beauty and intelligence.

Clauses A clause is a group of words that contains a verb and a subject of its own. It can be a part of a sentence or a sentence by itself.

Examples: It is the truth that girls and boys are equal. The girl, who is wearing the blue dress, is my sister. The doctor arrived after we had called him several times. Clauses can be dependent or independent.

Grammar Byte Remember that a sentence is also a main clause.

Clauses that make complete sense on their own are called independent or main clauses.

Look at this sentence. Rama was taking photos and Gitanjali was painting. The above sentence contains two clauses joined by the coordinating conjunction and. They both make complete sense on their own and hence, are main clauses. Main clauses are usually joined by coordinating conjunctions like and, but, or, for, nor, yet and so or by correlative conjunctions like either ... or and neither ... nor to form compound sentences. Clauses that cannot make complete sense on their own and depend on the main clause to make their meaning complete are called dependent or subordinate clauses.

Example: You are already a champion in my eyes, whether you win the competition or not. Here, the words in bold form a dependent clause. The rest of the words form an independent clause. Dependent clauses are usually introduced by subordinating conjunctions like because, although, though, when and before, or by relative pronouns like that, which, who, whom and whose. E Underline the main clauses and circle the subordinate clauses in the sentences. 1. Although Snigdha was ill, she appeared for her examination. 2. I failed to understand the chapter though I read it thrice. 3. Although our teacher had broken her arm, she came for the programme. 4. After Manisha completed her homework, she treated herself to a bowl of chocolates. 5. Until you learn how to swim, we cannot let you go near the sea alone. 6. Once you learn how to cook some basic dishes, you can try to cook a full meal. 7. While I was working on my project at night, my sister was solving crossword puzzles. 112

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Types of Clauses Clauses can be of three types: noun clauses, adjective clauses and adverb clauses.

Noun Clauses Noun clauses perform the function of nouns in a sentence. They usually act as the subject of the sentence or the object of the verb. They can also act as the object of the preposition or as a complement.

Grammar Byte Noun clauses are usually introduced by that, if, why, how, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom and whomever.

Examples: That he is irritating is true. (subject) I am sure that she is capable of completing the project on time. (object) We did not know whether the rumour was true. (object) Piyush’s problem was that he had missed the last bus to the city. (complement) F Underline the noun clauses in these sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I don’t know when Anila will get home from the airport. Whatever Juby does is always neat. Who will fi ll the vacant post has not yet been decided. Whoever finishes the work on time will get to play outside. We are trying to understand why the customers left. We will decide whether we’ll go for the musical programme tonight. You should concentrate on how to develop your reading skills. Chris informed me that he is going back to England. We were shocked to hear what happened at school today. It is important for a performer to know how to entertain the audience.

G Complete the noun clauses in these sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

It is important that I know what He admitted that I could not understand how Nobody believed what Prakash asked where I confessed that

Adjective Clauses Adjective clauses perform the function of adjectives in sentences. They modify the noun or pronoun in the main clause.

Examples: The girl, who is wearing a fur coat, lives in Shillong. My first cousin, whom I love, is leaving the city tomorrow.

Grammar Byte Adjective clauses are preceded by relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) or adverbs (when, where). He is the king who lives in a glass palace. This is the town where I was born.


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H Underline the adjective clauses in these sentences and circle the nouns they describe. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I

This is the time which we had been looking forward to. The police have caught the man who robbed our house last night. The people whose complaints have been noted will be attended tosoon. She is the girl who won a gold medal. I enjoyed the fi lm which we watched yesterday. I liked the dress which my aunt bought me on my birthday. This is the spot where our car met with the accident. You should eat food which is nutritious. My grandfather spoke about the times when people lived simpler lives. Students who are hard-working do well in life.

Complete the adjective clauses in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

This is the car which Harry was the prince who He bought the phone which I have interviewed the people whose The dog played with the man who This is the time when I am travelling to those islands where

Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses modify the verb, the adjective or the adverb in the main clauses.

Examples: The doctor arrived before the ambulance left. The match was postponed because it was too hot. The umpire called off the game though the players were willing to start.

Types of Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses are of various types. Adverb clauses of manner describe how the action in the main clause is performed. These are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as like, as, as if.

Examples: He did as he had been instructed. She ran as if her life depended on it. Adverb clauses of time describe when the action in the main clause takes place. These are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as when, while, before, after, since, as, as soon as.

Examples: When the baby saw the colourful ball, it reached out for it. She stood up to greet me as soon as she saw me coming. 114

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