English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) Writing: Making the case (2023)


  • John FlowerdewCity University of Hong Kong




English for academic purposes (EAP), English for specific academic purposes (ESAP), writing, specific purposes writing, register and discourse analysis, genre analysis, corpora, ethnography, contrastive rhetoric, classroom methodology, critical approaches


This introductory review article for this special issue sets out a range of issues in play as far as English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing is concerned, but with a special emphasis on English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) (as opposed to English for General Academic Purposes (EGAP)). Following the introduction, the article begins by outlining the different types of EAP and presenting the pros and cons of ESAP and EGAP for writing. It then goes on to review work in a range of areas of relevance to ESAP writing. These areas are register and discourse analysis; genre analysis; corpus analysis; ethnography; contrastive rhetoric; classroom methodology; critical approaches; and assessment. The article concludes by arguing that whichever model of writing is chosen (EGAP or ESAP), or if a hybrid model is the choice, if at all possible, students need to be exposed to the understandings, language and communicative activities of their target disciplines, with students themselves also contributing to this enterprise.

Author Biography

John Flowerdew, City University of Hong Kong

John flowerdew is a Professor in the Department of English, City University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.


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What is difference between EGAP and ESAP? ›

A distinction is often made between EGAP and ESAP (Blue, 1988). EGAP – English for General Academic Purposes – deals with the language and practices common to all EAP students, whereas ESAP – English for Specific Academic Purposes – is concerned with the specific needs of students in particular disciplines.

What is English for specific academic purposes? ›

English for specific purposes (ESP) is a subset of English as a second or foreign language. It usually refers to teaching the English language to university students or people already in employment, with reference to the particular vocabulary and skills they need.

What are the main challenges you would face when writing in English for Academic Purposes? ›

- Different rhetorical patterns and discourse styles. - Persistent grammatical or lexical errors that may on occasions impede comprehension or distract the reader. -Frequent non-impeding, "non-distracting" errors which may lead to a negative evaluation of the writer's language level.

What is the difference between English for Specific Purposes and English for Academic Purposes? ›

The review of previous studies reveals that EGP focuses on general English language abilities of students whereas ESP focuses on specific skills and needs of learners based on a detailed analysis of learners' professional/academic needs. This distinction has important implications for ESP teachers.

What is the relationship between EGAP and ESAP provide examples? ›

EGAP isolates the skills associated with study activities such as listening to lectures and participating in seminars and tutorials, and teaches the skills that are common to all disciplines. ESAP integrates the skills work of EGAP with help for students in their actual subject tasks.


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